5 posts tagged

Austria

I found great ski lessons

Stomp It Tutorials explains every movement you have to learn to obtain a skill. This channel also has excellent video quality. The great thing is that the instruction is not just showing how to do jumps himself, he also teaches his snowboarder friend how to ski. Check out his video about jumps.

2022   Austria   Ski

Ornament and crime, Adolf Loos, 1908

The main thoughts:

Make the walls around the living space, not otherwise. The planning of a house must start with understanding what people will do inside, how they will use each place. Some architects first do the house planning, and only then do they decide how people will live inside the house. After panning the outer walls, they decide where and how the bedroom, bath, living room, and kitchen will be located. An example is when a person wants to have three floors, or 600 square meter area, and he thinks afterward how to fill the place.

For me, that was a crucial thought. Did you think an architect should plan walls, windows, stairs only after planning the people’s behavior inside the house? I guess it is tough to imagine. Most of us buy or rent an apartment, and we initially have the plan of an apartment, and based on this plan, we make the walls between rooms and place the tables, sofas, beds, and other furniture. But when you build your own house, you must think conversely! Remember!

Vienna is a Potemkin village. Potemkin village is the name of fake houses, where only a façade is made. Potemkin villages were built in Russian Empire when the emperor traveled around different regions. Mayor Potemkin did not want the emperor to see poor villages, and he decided to build fake houses on the main streets so that the emperor would see the flourishing city. The homes had only one wall and were constructed out of wood, were colored, and had ornaments made of gypsum.

Vienna has a similar thing. Houses in Vienna look gorgeous; however, most of the façade is just a cheap decoration made of gypsum instead of stone, which doesn’t have any functions.

Without the Façade, the house of the 15th and 17th centuries will look the same as that of the 19th century. For a long time, the only difference in homes was the Façade style: baroque, classicism, modern, neo-gothic, etc.

You can’t fake one material for a more expensive one. The fake will always be seen. In Vienna, architects usually make hardwood out of a soft one or paint the normal wood to the red transparent color to look like the teak wood (red hardwood, very expensive).

There were no prohibitions of fake architecture because no one was faking before. If there are no robbers, you don’t need any punishment for robbery. Nobody was faking the architecture styles before. Only when the new cheap luxury-imitating materials became popular, the process of faking start to flourish.

Ornament is terrible, and once we will eliminate it. The Ornament is just the time spent for nothing. People of baroque times (when people discovered purple color, just a fact) spent money on needless luxury things, and people became poorer. Still, people in the new era are conscious about our needs, and we understand that some wills are stupid. That is why we became richer.

Let’s take two persons having the same income and living simultaneously. One is a baroque person, and one is a modern person. The baroque person will eat the peacocks, pheasant, lobsters with silver spoons on a table made of teak wood with the picturesque ornaments. He will probably wear clothes made of silk, covered with gold, purple color. He will have diamond rings and other stuff. The modern person (of the 20th century) will not have any ornament in his house, neither on the clothes, boots, or furniture. He will wear a black suit to not stand out from the crowd. His power is in his mind. Without spending money on luxury and Ornament, the modern person will save money and grow his capital not need to work in the future.

The modern person will work less. Workers of the previous era spent most of the time on decorations so that they had to work 20 hours per day to have the same production as a person of the modern age (20th century). Now people in America work 8 hours per day, and soon people will work 4 hours a day if they forget about all unnecessary details.

Some architects kill harmony with nature. A¬†peasant in¬†a¬†small village will build a¬†house without an¬†architect. If there is clay nearby, he will buy bricks; if not¬†‚Äď he will use wood and¬†stones from the¬†lake nearby. The¬†Peasant will ask the¬†carpenter (woodworker) to¬†make a¬†roof, and¬†he does not¬†know if the¬†roof will be beautiful or¬†ugly until it is built. Will the¬†house be beautiful? The¬†house will be as¬†beautiful as¬†a¬†lake, a¬†tree, or¬†a¬†horse. It will be a¬†part of¬†nature.

photos are taken from google and added to have a feeling of harmony with nature.

Architects can come to a place and draw the house as he or the customer imagines. He may use materials or technologies that are not usual for these places. The house may be great but may also kill nature. The house will take all the attention to itself. A peasant (subconsciously) understands that the house is a part of nature, and he will try to live in harmony as his ancestors lived.

Сity dwellers (urban citizens) don’t have a history. They have no sense of beauty and are not attached to one style. They live in a mix of everything.

The good architecture does not look nice in pictures. The architecture is not 2-dimensional, and a house is not built by pen. The architecture of Adolf Loos looks too simple on paper and photos but is great in real life. And you know why it is better? Look at other buildings built that time, look at the cafes of modern style with ornaments, that, of course, look great on paper, and where are they? Most of them are closed or have a new design because such architecture becomes not pretty even for the creator. In 3 years, the architect starts to hate his Ornament.

Someone may say that regular change of style, furniture, etc., is suitable for an economy because factories will produce more and more people will have jobs. Such logic exists. When the house is on fire, people are happy because a new, better building will be constructed in that place. But it is not ok, because it is just a capital loss for nothing.

Architecture is not art, except for monuments and gravestones. Everyone should like a House. But art is how an artist sees the world; you may like it or not. Art does not have a function (except for evoking emotions). However, the house satisfies the specific need. The picture should lead out of the usual comfort. The house should serve this comfort. The art is revolutionary; the house is conservative. Art opens new ways and thinks about the future. The house thinks about presents. A person likes everything that serves comfort and hates everything that leads out of it. So, he likes a house and hates art. And yes, architecture is not art. Unfortunately, today (20th century), most houses are liked by two people: the architect and a developer (a private home customer).

Adolf Loos is Austria‚Äôs most known architect of¬†the¬†early 20th century. His two masterpieces are the¬†Loos Haus and¬†Caf√© ‚ÄúMuseum.‚ÄĚ

Loos Haus, now here is the Raiffeisenbank.
Café Museum (I took photos from google)

Adolf Loos has written two best-seller books: ‚ÄúOrnament and¬†crime‚ÄĚ and¬†‚ÄúWhy A¬†Man Should Be Well-dressed.‚ÄĚ

In this article, I summarized the thoughts of Adolf loos and the thoughts that I experienced reading this book. If you liked this format, I would continue writing such articles. I have great books in my home library that I will be happy to talk about, and I also know tens of great books about architecture and urban planning. Just write a comment or write a private message. I will be very grateful.

2022   Architecture   Austria   Books

Letter for customers of HolyBike (AustrianBoxes.com)

Hello, I am Daniil Kovekh, founder of¬†Holybike. We produce designer bicycle lockers (boxes). Our website is HolyBike.xyz. (Austrianboxes.com¬†‚Äď edited)

Why do you need it

If you don’t have a place to keep bicycles safe, you lose your potential customers. You may allow bicyclists to keep bikes inside the hotel, but the bikes are usually dirty and wet when it rains. You will have to spend money on cleaning the room. In HolyBike, you take a metallic plate out and clean it one time per month.

Material

We offer three materials: stainless steel, corten steel (rusty), or wood with 1.5mm of steel for additional protection.
We suggest using Corten steel with a green roof, which will make your box an attraction for tourists. Moreover, you will not need to clean this material, and it will look different every year due to the patina (the brown color) formation. Corten will look great even in 50 years!

We can also paint a box in any color you wish, but we propose to use Corten steel instead.

Green roof

We use the¬†green roof because it is an¬†eye-catcher and¬†is environmentally friendly. The¬†green roof will keep the¬†rainwater, and¬†the¬†‚ÄúSedum‚ÄĚ plants will consume the¬†water. For¬†cases of¬†heavy rain, we made small holes to¬†move the¬†rainwater out.

Size

2m x 1.10m x 1.35m per box with two bike slots is suitable for even the XL full-suspension e-bikes and standard e-scooters.

The¬†price of¬†the¬†Holybike differs from 500‚ā¨¬†per¬†2 bicycle slots to¬†1700‚ā¨¬†per¬†2 bicycle slots, depending on¬†the¬†material and¬†features.
We recommend the¬†model with four slots, a¬†green roof, charging, and¬†corten corners. We sell this model for¬†the¬†early birds for¬†2600‚ā¨. In¬†spring the¬†price will be 3000‚ā¨.

We start sending the lockers at the end of spring 2022. we will produce only five boxes with four slots for bikes till this time.

Reserve a bicycle box for free by submitting a form on https://holybike.xyz/12/. You will choose the number of slots for bikes, material, color, and a need for power outlets for e-bikes inside the boxes.
In winter we will send you an offer. Don’t worry; you will be able to reject or edit it.

2021   Austria   HolyBike

Why not to give a Bus Stop the second function

Rintala Eggertsson Architects

This is the bus stop Kressbad in the Austrian town. this building also has a spectator room. Instead of just staying at a bus stop, people may watch the game from above.

The exterior is made out of sliced light wood. it looks gorgeous and it is also easy to change the broken or spoiled slices of wood.
The interior is made out of black-colored wood with a glass panel. I guess, the panel is used to recline yourself (to lean on it) in case if you wanna stay, and as a protection from falling

I like this picture¬†‚Äď there is the¬†Russian car on¬†the¬†background

Trade Regulations of Austria. Important Notes

This article consists of quotes from the  Austrian trade regulation document, that I found most important. The text was translated and copypasted to this article without any additional edits, except for my thoughts that I marked with bold text. The article will be edited continuously.

Due to irrelevance to the theme of a blog and a huge length, I moved the article to the year 2000. There I put articles, that I want to be public, but dont want to be in the feed.

§ 1. (1) Unless §§ 2 to 4 stipulates otherwise, this Federal Act applies to all activities carried out commercially and not prohibited by law.

(2) An activity is carried out commercially if it is carried out independently, regularly and with the intention of generating an income or other economic advantage, regardless of the purposes for which it is intended; it makes no difference whether the income or other economic advantage intended by the activity should be achieved in connection with activity falling within the scope of this Federal Act or in connection with an activity not subject to this Federal Act.
(3) Self-employment within the meaning of this Federal Act exists if the activity is carried out at your own expense and risk.
(4) A one-off act is also considered a regular activity if, according to the circumstances of the case, the intention of repetition can be concluded or if it requires a longer period of time. Offering an activity forming the subject of a trade to a larger circle of people or in the case of tenders is kept equal to the exercise of the trade. Publication of an activity forming the subject of a trade in registers shall not be considered an exercise if the publication is based on legal obligations.

§ 5. (1) Unless otherwise provided for this Federal Act with regard to individual trades, trades may be exercised on the basis of the registration of the trade in question (§ 339) if the general and the special conditions prescribed for individual trades are met.

(2) Free trades are activities within the meaning of § 1 para. 1, which are not expressly listed as regulated trades (§ 94) or partial trades (§ 31). Without prejudice to any exercise regulations, no proof of formal qualifications must be provided for free trades.

General requirements for the practice of trades

§ 9. (1) Legal entities and registered partnerships (open companies and limited partnerships) can trade, but must have appointed a managing director (§ 39).

(2) If the managing director resigns, the trade may continue to be exercised until the appointment of a new managing director, but for a maximum of six months. The authority must shorten this period if the further exercise of the trade without a managing director poses a particular risk to the life or health of people or if the trade has been exercised for more than six months without a managing director for more than six months in the previous two years before the resignation of the manager.
(3) If registered partnerships want to pursue a business for which the provision of a certificate of competence is required, a general partner who is entitled to manage and represent the company under the articles of association or at least half of the weekly normal working hours employed in the company who are fully subject to insurance in accordance with the provisions of social security law must be appointed managing director (§ 39). This provision does not apply to the trades listed in § 7 para. 5, which are carried out in the form of an industrial enterprise; furthermore, this provision does not apply in the event of the death of the managing director (§ 39), if the company continues to pursue the trade after the death of this personally liable partner, until the end of the abandonment treatise according to this partner, in the case of the prior resignation from the company only until the time of departure.
(4) If a legal person is a general partner of a registered partnership, paragraph 3 shall also be complied with if a natural person is appointed as managing director (§ 39) of this partnership who belongs to the organ of the legal person concerned appointed to represent the legal representation, or who is an employee of this legal person who is fully insured in the company who is fully subject to insurance under the provisions of
(5) If a registered partnership is a general partner of another such partnership, paragraph 3 shall also be complied with if a natural person is appointed managing director (§ 39), who is a general partner of the member company concerned and who has the position prescribed for the managing director in paragraph 3 within this member company. This member company must have the position prescribed for the managing director in paragraph 3 within the registered partnership.
(6) If a legal person is a general partner of a registered partnership and this partnership is a general partner of another such partnership, paragraph 3 shall also be complied with if a person is appointed managing director (§ 39) of the latter partnership who belongs to the organ of the legal person appointed to legal representation, if the legal person within the member company also has the position prescribed in paragraph 3 and if, finally, this member company also has the position prescribed in paragraph 3 within its member company.

§94 Regulated trade

82 business types are regulated. It includes:

  • Monument, facade, and¬†building cleaning
  • Builder
  • Bookbinding; case and¬†cassette production; Production of¬†cardboard goods (connected crafts)
  • Tourist guide
  • Real estate trustees (real estate agents, property managers, property developers)
  • Travel agencies
  • Engineering offices (consulting engineers)
  • Management consulting including the¬†business organization
  • Commercial investment advice
  • Insurance brokerage (insurance agent, insurance broker and¬†advice on¬†insurance matters)
  • Securities intermediaries

§95 (2) In the case of the trades listed in paragraph 1, the appointment of a managing director or a branch manager for the exercise of the trade is subject to approval. The permit must be granted at the request of the trader if the in § 39 para. 2 or § 47 para. 2 are met.

§ 99. (1) The builder (§ 94 Z 5) is entitled to

  1. to plan and calculate building constructions, civil engineering and other related buildings,
  2. to manage building constructions, civil engineering and other related buildings and to carry out construction supervision,
  3. to also carry out building constructions, civil engineering and other related buildings in accordance with paragraph 2 and to demoliate building constructions, civil engineering and other related buildings,
  4. to set up scaffolding that require static knowledge,
  5. for project development, management and control, project management and the assumption of construction management,
  6. within the scope of his business license to represent his client before authorities and bodies under public law.
    (2) The builder is also entitled to take over, plan and calculate and manage the work of other industries as part of his construction management. He is also entitled to carry out this work himself as part of his construction management, insofar as it concerns activities of concrete goods producers, artificial stone producers, terrazzo makers, black-deckers, screed manufacturers, stone wood layers, gardeners, plasterers and drywallers, heat, cooling, sound and fire dampers and sealers against moisture and pressurized water. The builder may take over and carry out the production of screed and drywalling activities independently of a construction management. Insofar as it concerns works of trades not mentioned in this paragraph, he must use the authorized traders to carry out this work. Furthermore, without prejudice to the rights of the well masters, he is entitled to carry out deep drilling of all kinds.
    (3) The qualification for activities in accordance with para. 1 no. 1 and 2 can only be provided by means of a certificate of competence in accordance with § 18 para. 1.
    (4) The authorization of other traders to draw up the preliminary drafts required in connection with the planning of technical plants and facilities in the field of building and civil engineering remains unaffected.
    (5) If the¬†trade of¬†the¬†builders is registered to¬†an¬†extent that does not¬†have the¬†right to¬†comprehensive planning in¬†accordance with para. 1 no. 1, the¬†trade applicant must use the¬†term ‚Äúconstruction trader‚ÄĚ with the¬†corresponding restriction. Only traders whose business authorization has the¬†right to¬†comprehensive planning in¬†accordance with para. 1 Z 1, may use the¬†designation ‚Äúbuilder‚ÄĚ. Traders who are entitled to¬†carry out the¬†master craftsman‚Äôs trade to¬†a¬†limited extent to¬†the¬†execution of¬†buildings may not¬†use a¬†designation that could give the¬†impression that they are entitled to¬†plan buildings.
    (6) At¬†the¬†request of¬†the¬†trader, the¬†Federal Minister of¬†Economic Affairs and¬†Labour must determine within three months by¬†decision that the¬†trader whose trade license has the¬†right to¬†comprehensive planning in¬†accordance with ¬ß 99 para. 1 Z 1 contains, in¬†addition to¬†the¬†designation ‚Äúbuilder‚ÄĚ, may also use the¬†term ‚Äúcommercial architect‚ÄĚ if he
  7. a certificate of training in accordance with Article 49 of Directive 2005/36/EC
    a) either on the basis of the successful completion of the maturity test at a relevant domestic higher technical college (building construction) and worked as a construction trader for at least ten years or in a function equivalent to the same
    b) or on the basis of a domestic relevant university (university) degree program and
  8. in another Member State of the European Economic Area or of the European Union, on the basis of the rules and standards applicable therein or even from the assumption of public contracts in the field of his business license or from participation in public tenders or on the basis of the rules and standards applicable therein, has been excluded from the takeover of private contracts or from participation in private tenders only because
    (7) The traders entitled to exercise the master craftsman’s trade (§ 94 Z 5) or the partial trade originating from the master craftsman’s trade must take out liability insurance for personal injury, property damage and financial loss for their professional activity. Liability insurance must be provided by a company that is authorized to operate in Austria. The insured sum must be:
  9. For a trader entitled to practice the master craftsman’s trade (§ 94 Z 5) or the sub-trade originating from the master craftsman’s trade with a maximum annual turnover in accordance with § 221 para. 2 no. 2 in conjunction with § 221 para. 4 Corporate Code: at least EUR 1,000,000 per claim, whereby it is permissible to limit the insurance benefit per annual insurance period to EUR 3,000,000.
  10. For a trader entitled to exercise the master craftsman (§ 94 Z 5) or the partial trade originating from the master craftsman’s trade with more than one annual turnover in accordance with § 221 para. 2 no. 2 in conjunction with § 221 para. 4 Corporate Code: at least EUR 5,000,000 per claim, whereby it is permissible to limit the insurance benefit per annual insurance period to EUR 15,000,000.
    For these compulsory insurance sums, a deductible of a maximum of five % of these sums per claim may be agreed.
    (8) When registering the master builder’s trade (§ 94 Z 5) or a partial trade originating from the builder’s trade, proof of liability insurance for personal injury, property damage and financial loss in accordance with para. 7 must be provided in addition to the requirements in accordance with § 339 para. 3.
    (9) In the event of freedom of performance of the insurer from liability insurance for personal injury, property damage and financial loss to the insurer’s local authority responsible for the builder (§ 94 Z 5) or a partial trade originating from the builder’s trade and regarding the liability of the insurer in view of a third party, the provisions of § 92 GewO 1994 No. 2/1959, as amended. § 158c para. 2 VersVG applies with the proviso that the circumstance that results in the non-existence or termination of the insurance relationship only takes effect vis-à-vis the third party after the insurer has notified this circumstance to the authority.
    (10) In the event of the abolition of liability insurance for personal injury, property damage and financial loss within the meaning of paragraph 7, the authority must immediately initiate trade deprivation procedure and, if new liability insurance for personal injury, property damage and financial loss is not proven immediately, withdraw the trade license within a maximum of two months. § 361 para. 2 does not apply in this case. Complaints against withdrawal notices have no suspensive effect. The initiation of the trade deprivation procedure must be noted in GISA.

§ 117. (1) The trade of real estate trustees (§ 94 Z 35) includes the activities of real estate agents, property managers and property developers.

(2) The real estate agent’s area of activity includes

  1. the mediation of the purchase, sale and exchange of undeveloped and built-up land and rights to real estate including the mediation of rights of use to real estate (such as acquired through timeshare contracts) and the mediation of the purchase, sale and exchange of apartments, business premises, prefabricated houses and companies;
  2. the mediation of existing contracts for real estate, including the brokerage of existing contracts for apartments, business premises and companies;
  3. the trade in real estate including the hire purchase. This also includes the construction of buildings that the broker as a builder has carried out by authorized traders for the purpose of resale as a whole;
  4. the mediation of participations in real estate funds;
  5. the advice and support for the shops listed in Z 1 to 4. Traders who are entitled to carry out these activities are also entitled to broker mortgage loans as well as to broker private rooms to travelers for temporary residence and to keep a guest room certificate;
  6. the implementation of the public auction of real estate, superaddicates and building rights according to § 87c NO;
    § 158 applies.
    (3) The area of activity of the real estate manager includes all activities necessary and appropriate for the management of built-up and undeveloped properties, the preservation, repair, improvement and renovation of which. This also includes the collection of funds and the payment of payments related to administrative activities. Property managers are also entitled to
  7. to advise homeowners and apartment owners in tax matters under the administrative contract as well as to write documents and submissions;
  8. carry out administrative activities for individual co-owners of a property, provided that this does not create a conflict of interest with the community of owners whose property they manage;
  9. to carry out simple repair and repair work on the objects they manage.
    (4) The scope of activity of the developer includes the organizational and commercial processing of construction projects (new buildings, sweeping renovations) on his own or third-party account as well as the renovation of buildings equivalent to a new building with regard to the construction effort. The developer is also entitled to recycle these buildings.
    (5) Real estate trustees are also entitled to represent their clients before administrative authorities, funds, funding agencies and corporations under public law as well as in court within the scope of their business authorization and mission, provided that there is no legal obligation.
    (6) The establishment of contracts by real estate trustees is permitted if this consists in the completion of formally designed contracts.
    (7) The traders entitled to carry out the business of real estate agents (§ 94 Z 35) must take out financial loss liability insurance with an insurance sum of at least 100,000 euros per claim for their professional activities. For this compulsory insurance sum, a deductible of a maximum of five % of this sum may be agreed per claim. It is permissible to limit the insurance benefit per annual insurance period to EUR 300,000. Financial loss liability insurance must be provided by a company that is authorized to operate in Austria. If the activity of brokering mortgage loans in accordance with para. 2 Z 5 is not excluded from the trade wording, the professional liability insurance or equivalent guarantee in accordance with Article 1 of Delegated Regulation (EU) No 1125/2014 supplementing Directive 2014/17/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to regulatory technical standards for the minimum coverage amount of professional liability insurance or equivalent guarantee for credit intermediaries, OJ No. L 305, 10/24/2014 p. 1.
    The traders entitled to carry out the business of real estate managers (§ 94 Z 35) must take out financial loss liability insurance for their professional activities with an insurance sum of at least 400,000 euros per claim. For this compulsory insurance sum, a deductible of a maximum of five % of this sum may be agreed per claim. It is permissible to limit the insurance benefit per annual insurance period to EUR 1,200,000. Financial loss liability insurance must be provided by a company that is authorized to operate in Austria.
    The traders entitled to carry out the business of the developers (§ 94 Z 35) must take out financial loss liability insurance with an insurance sum of at least 1,000 000 euros per claim for their professional activity. For this compulsory insurance sum, a deductible of a maximum of five % of this sum may be agreed per claim. It is permissible to limit the insurance benefit per annual insurance period to EUR 1 500 000 for companies with an annual turnover of less than EUR 2,000,000 and to EUR 3,000,000 for other companies. Financial loss liability insurance must be provided by a company that is authorized to operate in Austria.
    (8) When registering the trade of the real estate trustees, proof of financial loss liability insurance in accordance with para. 7 must be provided in addition to the requirements of § 339 para. 3.
    (9) In the event of freedom from performance of the insurer from financial loss liability insurance, the provisions of § 92 GewO 1994 and the provisions of §§ 158b to 158i of the VersVG, BGBl apply to the notification of the insurer to the local authority for the real estate trustee and regarding the liability of the insurer in view of a third party. No. 2/1959, as amended. § 158c para. 2 VersVG applies with the proviso that the circumstance that results in the non-existence or termination of the insurance relationship only takes effect vis-à-vis the third party after the insurer has notified this circumstance to the authority.
    (10) In the event of the abolition of financial loss liability insurance within the meaning of paragraph 7, the authority must immediately initiate trade deprivation proceedings and, if a new financial loss liability insurance is not proven immediately, withdraw the trade license within a maximum of two months. § 361 para. 2 does not apply in this case. Complaints against withdrawal notices have no suspensive effect. The initiation of the trade deprivation procedure must be noted in GISA.

§136a. (1) The commercial investment advisor (§ 94 Z 75) is entitled to

  1. Advice on the development, safeguarding and maintenance of assets and financing with the exception of investment advice on financial instruments (§ 3 para. 2 Z 1 WAG 2018),
  2. Mediation of
    a) Investments and investments, excluding financial instruments (§ 3 para. 2 Z 3 WAG 2018),
    b) Personnel loans and mortgage loans and financing (instences, offerings and other preparatory work on credit agreements and concluding them for the lender) and
    c) Life and accident insurance.
    (Note: para. 1a repealed by BGBl. I No. 155/2015)
    (2) With regard to the mediation of life and accident insurance, the commercial investment advisor is subject to the provisions of §§ 137 to 138 and the other provisions regarding insurance brokerage.
    (3) Commercial investment advisors are entitled to the activities of § 1 Z 45 WAG 2018 as securities intermediaries (§ 94 Z 77). Activities as a tied intermediary according to § 1 Z 44 WAG 2018 may not be carried out in this case.
    (4) When registering the trade of commercial investment advice (§ 94 Z 75), if the activity of the securities intermediary is carried out, proof of the existence of a representative relationship must be attached in addition to the evidence in accordance with § 339 para. 3. The applicant may only start exercising the activity of securities brokerage from the date of entry in GISA.
    (5) The trader must immediately inform the trade authority of the termination of the last representation relationship. After becoming aware of the abolition of the last representation relationship, the authority must immediately initiate a withdrawal procedure regarding the activity as a securities intermediary and, if a representation relationship is not proven immediately, withdraw the authorization as a securities intermediary within two months at the latest. § 361 para. 2 first sentence does not apply in this case. Complaints against withdrawal notices have no suspensive effect. The initiation of the withdrawal procedure must be noted in GISA.
    (6) Commercial investment advisors must meet the requirements of continuous vocational training and further education in order to maintain an adequate level of performance that corresponds to the tasks they perform and the corresponding market. For this purpose, these persons must complete at least 20 hours of vocational training or further education per year from the calendar year next to registration in GISA. This obligation replaces the obligation under § 137b para. 3. Proof of participation in the training must be kept available at the location of the trade for at least five years for inspection by the authority at any time. Commercial investment advisors may only use personnel that meet the requirements of this paragraph.
    (6a) Relevant courses are considered training within the meaning of para. 6. The responsible specialist organization of the Austrian Chamber of Commerce must develop a curriculum for the training content. The curriculum must provide for the trader that at least half of the continuing education obligation may only be carried out with certain independent educational institutions. The curriculum can extend over several years. The curriculum requires confirmation from the Federal Minister for Digitalization and Business Location. The Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FMA) must be given the opportunity to comment within a reasonable period of time by the Federal Minister for Digitalization and Business Location before issuing the confirmation. The curriculum may provide for a smaller minimum number of hours for traders or their staff, provided that areas of activity are excluded from the scope of business.
    (7) Commercial investment advisors acting as securities intermediaries may perform the activities referred to in § 1 Z 45 WAG 2018 for no more than three companies. The commercial investment advisor acting as a securities intermediary must clearly disclose the respective business owner to the contractual partner (securities customers) at each time they take up business and point out the entry in the register with the FMA. If the securities intermediary does not clearly disclose the contractual client, all persons are liable in accordance with § 37 para. 7 WAG 2018 registered business owners in solidarity.
    (8) Commercial investment advisors are entitled to the activities of § 1 Z 44 WAG 2018 as a tied agent. Activities as a securities intermediary according to § 1 Z 45 WAG 2018 may not be carried out in this case.
    (9) When registering the trade of commercial investment advice (§ 94 Z 75), if the activity of the tied intermediary is carried out, proof of the existence of the representation relationship must be attached in addition to the evidence in accordance with § 339 para. 3. The applicant may only start exercising the activity of the tied agent from the date of entry in GISA.
    (10) The trader must immediately inform the trade authority of the termination of the last representation relationship. After becoming aware of the abolition of the representative relationship, the authority must immediately initiate a withdrawal procedure regarding the activity as a tied intermediary and, if a representative relationship is not proven immediately, withdraw the entitlement as a tied intermediary within no more than two months. § 361 para. 2 first sentence does not apply in this case. Complaints against withdrawal notices have no suspensive effect. The initiation of the withdrawal procedure must be noted in GISA.
    (11) Commercial investment advisors must when accepting and transmitting orders in connection with investments in accordance with § 1 para. 1 Z 3 Capital Markets Act, KMG, BGBl. No. 625/1991, § 56 WAG 2018, BGBl. I No. 107/2017 as amended.
    (12) Traders entitled to pursue the trade of investment advisors must take out financial loss liability insurance for their professional activities with an insurance sum of at least 1,111,675 euros for each individual claim and 1,6677,513 euros for all claims of a year. This does not apply to activities for which there is liability protection within the meaning of para. 4 or para. 9 or § 137c. The aforementioned minimum insurance sums increase or decrease as a percentage of the European Consumer Price Index published by Eurostat from 15.1.2013 and thereafter regularly every five years, rounding them up to the next higher full euro amount. The provisions of § 117 para. 8 to 10 must be applied mutatis mutandis. For activities of brokering mortgage loans in accordance with para. 1 no. 2 lit. b, professional liability insurance or equivalent guarantee in accordance with Article 1 of Delegated Regulation (EU) No 1125/2014 must be available from the aforementioned amounts of coverage.